Dr Joseph Baldwin

Joseph BaldwinCurrent Role: Research Fellow - The Perce​ptual Experience Laboratory (PEL)
Academic school/Organisation: Cardiff School of Art & Design / ZERO2FIVE Food Industry Centre - Cardiff School of Sport & Health Science

​Work E-mail:Jbaldwin@cardiffmet.ac.uk


Specialist Subject Area

Product Design:
Theory, Studio and Workshop: Design Process, User-Centred Design, Design Thinking, Product Testing.

Research Methods:
Applied analysis strategies: Eye-Tracking and Behavioural Software, Biometrics and Psychological Measures, Experimental Design, Quantitative and Qualitative Methodologies, Statistical Analysis.


PhD, Doctorate by Research, Cardiff Metropolitan University (2015)
MSc in Industrial Design, Swansea Metropolitan University (2002)
BSc (Hons) in Product Design, First Class, Swansea Metropolitan University (2000)

FHEA: Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Cardiff Metropolitan University (2020)
PGCR: Postgraduate Certificate in Professional & Research Skills, Cardiff Metropolitan University (2013)
PGCE: Postgraduate Certificate in Education, University of Wales Swansea (2001

Previous roles within Cardiff Metropolitan University

Technical Research and Development Officer (Jan 2018 - Sep 2019)
The Perceptual Experience Laboratory (PEL)
Cardiff School of Art & Design / ZERO2FIVE Food Industry Centre - Cardiff School of Sport and Health Science

Associate Tutor in Product Design (Feb 2017 - Jan 2018)
Support subject modules and academic research activities
Cardiff School of Art & Design

Research Officer (Jan 2016 - Jan 2018)
Postdoctoral tenure - simulated tourism and stress research
Cardiff School of Art & Design / Cardiff School of ManagementBSc Product Design (First-Class Honours) - Swansea Metropolitan University

Research Assistant in Product Testing (Feb 2014 - Jan 2016)
FovoLab research and data analysis
Cardiff School of Art & Design


Joseph Baldwin is a researcher, product designer, and educator. Since 2019 Joseph has been a Research Fellow at Cardiff School of Art and Design. He oversees academic and commercial research services and the technical management of the Perceptual Experience Laboratory (PEL); a facility used to conduct in-context user testing and behavioural research. Before his research activities at Cardiff Metropolitan University and completing his Doctorate in 2015, Joseph worked in both state and private sector schools, teaching a variety of Design and Technology programmes.

Joseph’s Doctoral Research explored the user response to pioneering imaging methods, conceptualised by artist-researchers, proposing to emulate the true experience of human vision. The overarching research evaluated conventional lens-based models of representing vision, against the early development phase of a novel digital imaging processes. This process contained intuitive insights taken from visual artists and vision scientists engaged in revealing the experience of visual awareness. While conducting his studies, Joseph worked in a range of cross-disciplinary teams interested in visual perception and consciousness. Collaborative projects included artist researchers, user centred-designers, cognitive psychologists, game designers and vision scientists.

Joseph’s Doctoral research studies were undertaken through the design of qualitative and quantitative experimental methodologies that empirically explored the experience of picture space. Eye-tracking technologies were widely used in his research, which provided unique behavioural insights and a robust understanding of visual benefits through gaze data analysis. The publication of Joseph’s Doctoral thesis and parallel collaborative research undertaken whilst working as a Research Assistant in Product Testing, have helped increase scientific understanding of the geometric structure of visual space, and supports new rules for depicting human vision. The research project saw Cardiff Metropolitan University shortlisted for a Times Higher Educational Award in 2015 for an outstanding contribution to Innovation and Technology. This research project remains active with the development of real-time computer graphics and commercial media technology aimed at emulating the phenomenal experience of seeing and spatial awareness.

Whilst undertaking postdoctoral research at Cardiff Metropolitan University, Joseph aided in developing a customisable low-cost multisensory user testing environment - The Perceptual Experience Laboratory (PEL). Unlike augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies, the PEL concept involves a video theatre design to present simulations of environmental and social settings that are not traditionally accessible for research purposes. This has provided researchers with an opportunity to stage contextual variables under laboratory conditions for user-centred design (U-CD) praxis and to examine how people interact within controlled scenarios. Preliminary PEL research conducted by Joseph investigated the use of a simulated natural environment to measure tourism’s potential to alleviate physiological and psychological stress and enhance mood. The findings demonstrated that a simulated environment can be used for measuring stress and mood as signifiers of hedonic well-being.

Joseph has been involved throughout the evolution of the PEL, producing simulated environments for food safety and security training, tourism wellbeing, consumer behaviour and user-testing research purposes. Additionally, leading on key aspects of applied behavioural testing methods and conducting statistical analysis to inform meaningful conclusions from study data. Joseph’s involvement in the development of bespoke academic and commercial research studies has provided practical insight into improving the immersive abilities of the PEL. As a stand-alone research project, the PEL has undergone several design iterations involving significant physical alteration and the integration of supporting technologies, to ameliorate the immersive experience of staged environments and induce closer real-world fidelity.

Joseph’s research activities and interests are focused on using simulated environments for food industry and user-centred design research and applying stimulus-response methods on subjects’ experiences and behaviour. He also works closely with and advises undergraduates, doctoral researchers and academics on their applied U-CD and consumer research projects in the PEL. Additionally, he is responsible for the operational management of the PEL, the maintenance of technologies and software in place, and the production of immersive environments and props. Joseph’s technical, educational, and applied research skills are also widely used in explaining the PEL facility to academic and commercial visitors.

Current research

Joseph works mainly within the Food Industry Centre and conducts research in applied user testing, consumer behaviour and simulated task environments. His current role involves supporting the ZERO2FIVE HELIX project; a Welsh Government-funded knowledge transfer programme developed to support the Welsh food industry. Joseph’s principal component of the HELIX Project seeks to uncover new insights into consumer habits and behaviours and use that knowledge to benefit Welsh food industry companies directly. The implementation of eye-tracking in simulated food and drink settings continues to provide unique insights into consumer purchasing behaviours, such as engagement with packaging iterations to determine positive design aspects and improve in-store merchandising. The application of eye-tracking during simulations of food processing scenarios is also being tested to check specialist knowledge gaps in critical food safety interventions. In addition to conducting food industry research, Joseph's role within Cardiff School of Art and Design includes working with academics across Cardiff Met to establish and undertake simulated and behavioural research projects.



Baldwin, J., Gilmour, A., Loudon, G., & Gill, S. (2023). 'A Technical Account Behind the Development of a Reproducible Low-Cost Immersive Space to Conduct Applied User Testing', Journal of Design Thinking, 3(2), pp. 271-290. https://doi.org/10.22059/JDT.2023.362877.1098

Melville, N., Redmond, E., Baldwin, J.E.B., & Evans, E.W. (2023). Inclusion of Food Safety Information in Home-delivered U.K. Meal-kit Recipes, Journal of Food Protection, 86(11), 100162, ISSN 0362-028X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfp.2023.100162

Baldwin, J., Evans, E., & Redmond, E. (2023). Exploring the Feasibility of Using a Simulated Environment to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities. Poster presented at: International Association for Food Protection (IAFP) Annual Meeting, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 16th-19th July 2023.

Melville, N.J., Redmond, E.C., Baldwin, J.E.B., & Evans, E.W. (2023). 'Meal-Kits in the United Kingdom: A Recipe for Food-Safety?' Poster presented at: International Association for Food Protection (IAFP) European Symposium on Food Safety. Aberdeen, Scotland. 3rd-5th May 2023.

Melville, N.J., Redmond, E.C., Baldwin, J.E.B., & Evans, E.W. (2023). 'Safe Recipe Style Guide' and the Evaluation of UK Meal-Kit Recipe Cards. Poster presented at: Consumer Food Safety Education Conference. Arlington, Virginia. 1st-3rd March 2023.

Baldwin, J.E.B. Interview. Conducted by Food Navigator Europe, 17th November 2022. How synthetic reality can inform innovation: Simulated task environments and eye-tracking technologies are increasingly being adopted.

Melville, N.J., Redmond, E.C., Baldwin, J.E.B., & Evans, E.W. (2022). Meal-Kit Use in the United Kingdom: Implications for Food Safety. Food Protection Trends, 42(6), pp. 567-571.

Baldwin J., Evans, E., & Redmond, E. (2022). Experience Analysis. The Perceptual Experience Lab (PEL): In-Context Training and Product Experience Analysis. Poster presented at: EuroSense2022. Conference on Sensory and Consumer Research. Turku, Finland. 13th-16th September 2022.

Melville, N., Baldwin, J., Redmond, E., & Evans, E. (2022). Evaluation of Food Safety Information Provision in Meal kit Recipes: A Pilot Study. Poster presented at: SafeConsume International Conference. Bucharest, Romania 27th-28th June 2022. Voted as “The best external research that matches the SafeConsume goals”.

Baldwin, J., Haven-Tang, C., Gill, S., Morgan, N., & Pritchard, A. (2020). Using the Perceptual Experience Laboratory (PEL) to Simulate Tourism Environments for Hedonic Wellbeing. Information Technology Tourism, 23, pp. 45-67. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40558-020-00179-x

Baldwin, J., & Evans, E. (2020). Exploring Novel Technologies to Enhance Food Safety Training and Research Opportunities. Food Protection Trends, 40(6), pp. 456-463​.

Lawrence, A., Loudon, G., Gill, S., Pepperell, R., & Baldwin, J. (2019). 'Geometry vs Realism: an exploration of visual immersion in a synthetic reality space. International Associations of Societies in Design Research Conference, Manchester, 2-5 September. https://iasdr2019.org/uploads/files/Proceedings/te-f-1248-Law-A.pdf

Gordon, B., Loudon, G., Gill, S., & Baldwin, J. (2019). Product user testing: the void between Laboratory testing and Field testing, International Associations of Societies in Design Research Conference, Manchester, 2-5 September. https://iasdr2019.org/uploads/files/Proceedings/pe-f-1384-Gor-B.pdf

Lawrence, A., Loudon, G., Gill, S., & Baldwin, J. (2019). 'Simulated Environments for Food Packaging Design Assessment', International Conference on Culinary Arts and Sciences (ICCAS), 2019: Food and Society, 27-28 June, Cardiff, Wales. https://www.cardiffmet.ac.uk/management/research/wctr/ICCAS2019/Pages/Conference-proceedings.aspx

Baldwin, J., Burleigh, A., Pepperell, R., & Ruta, N. (2016). The perceived size and shape of objects in peripheral vision. i-Perception, 7(4), pp. 1-23. http://ipe.sagepub.com/content/7/4/2041669516661900.full

Baldwin, J.E.B. (2015). Can artistic methods be used to improve the perception of depth in pictures? An investigation into two methods. Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff Metropolitan University. Thesis. https://doi.org/10.25401/cardiffmet.20286063.v1

Baldwin, J., Burleigh, A. & Pepperell, R. (2014). Comparing artistic and geometrical perspective depictions of space in the visual field. i-Perception, 5(6), pp. 536–547. http://ipe.sagepub.com/content/5/6/536.full.pdf+html