Dr Paul M Smith

Paul Smith

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Email address: psmith@cardiffmet.ac.uk 

Qualifications
MSc (Research) Exercise Physiology (Manchester Metropolitan University) 
BSc (Hons) Sport Science (Crewe and Alsager College of Higher Education)

Research Interests

  • Physiology of Upper-Body Exercise (Arm Crank Ergometry)
  • Investigations within the disability sport of Handcycling
  • Interaction between (leg or arm) cycling crank rate, exercise efficiency and RPE
  • Oxygen uptake kinetics
  • Assessment of sprint performance during upper-body exercise
  • Multi-/interdisciplinary approaches to research (linking elements of exercise physiology with those of sports biomechanics)
  • Influence of ergogenic aids on sporting performance

Consultancy & Previous Employment
University of Luton, Senior Lecturer (Oct 1994 – Jan 2005)
Exercise Physiology support for the National Judo Academy (2003)
University of Greenwich, Senior Lecturer (Jan 2005 – Aug 2007)
UK Handcycling Association – Sport Science Support and Development (2004 – present)

Membership of Professional Bodies
Professional Member of BASES
Full member of the American College of Sports Medicine
Affiliate Member of the British Physiological Society

Research Profile

Peer Reviewed, Scientific Publications
Stephens, C., Neil, R. and Smith, P. (in press). The Perceived Benefits and Barriers of Sport in Spinal Cord Injured Individuals; A Qualitative Study. Disability and Rehabilitation.

Allgrove, J E, Chapman, M, Christides, T, Tanner, A and Smith, PM. (in press). Immunoendocrine responses of spinal cord injured athletes to 1-hr self-paced exercise: a pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development.

P. Lee, L. Nokes and P.M. Smith. (in press). No Effect of Intravenous Actovegin® on Peak Aerobic Capacity. International Journal of Sports Medicine.

M.J. Price, L. Bottoms, P.M. Smith, and A. Nicholettos. (2010). The effects of an increasing vs. constant crank rate on peak physiological responses during incremental arm crank ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences. 29: 263-269.

C.A. Leicht, P.M. Smith, G. Sharpe, C Perret, V.L. Goosey-Tolfrey. (2010). The effects of a respiratory warm-up on the physical capacity and ventilatory response in paraplegic individuals. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 110: 1291-1298.

J.L. Oliver, P.M. Smith. (2010). Neural control of leg stiffness during hopping in boys and men. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 20: 973-979.

P.W. Sheard, P.M. Smith , T.J. Paine. (2009). Athlete compliance to therapist requested contraction intensity during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Manual Therapy, 14: 539-543.

P.M. Smith, M.L. Chapman, K.E. Hazlehurst, M.A. Goss-Sampson. (2008). The influence of crank pattern on muscle activity and torque production during arm crank ergometry. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 18: 598-605.

M.J. Price, L. Collins, P.M. Smith and M. Goss-Sampson. (2007). The effects of cadence and power output upon physiological and biomechanical responses to incremental arm crank ergometry. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism. 32: 686-692.

P.M. Smith, M. Doherty, J. Balmer,  R. Davison and M.J. Price. (2007). Reproducibility of power production during sprint arm ergometry. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 21: 1315-1319.

P.M. Smith, M. Doherty and M.J. Price. (2007). The effect of crank rate strategy on peak aerobic power and peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences. 25: 711-718. 

P.M. Smith, I. Amaral, M. Doherty, M.J. Price and A.M. Jones. (2006). The influence of ramp rate on VO2 peak and 'excess' VO2 during arm crank ergometry. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27: 610-616. 

P.M. Smith, E. McCrindle, M. Doherty, M. Price and A.M Jones. (2006). Influence of crank rate on the slow component of pulmonary O2 uptake during heavy arm crank exercise. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism, 1: 292-301.

P.M. Smith, M. Doherty and M.J. Price. (2006) The effect of crank rate on physiological responses and exercise efficiency using a range of submaximal workloads during arm crank ergometry. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27: 199-204

M. Doherty and P.M. Smith. (2005). Effects of caffeine ingestion on RPE: a meta-analysis. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports,15: 69-78.

J. Balmer, S.R. Bird, R.C.R. Davison, M. Doherty and P.M. Smith. (2004). Mechanically braked Wingate powers: agreement between SRM, corrected and standard methods of measurement. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22: 661-667.

A. Lucia……and P.M. Smith. (2004). Effects of the Rotor Pedalling System on the Performance of Trained Cyclists During Incremental and Consant-Load Cycle-Ergometry. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25: 479-485.

M. Doherty, P.M. Smith, M.G. Hughes and R.C.R Davison (2004). Caffeine lowers perceptual responses and increases power output during high-intensity cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22: 637-643.

P.M. Smith, M. Doherty, D. Drake and M.J. Price. (2004). The influence of step and ramp type protocols on the attainment of peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 25: 616-621.

M. Doherty and P.M. Smith. (2004). Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise testing: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14: 626-646.

M. Doherty, P.M. Smith, R.C.R. Davison and M.J. Hughes (2002). Caffeine is ergogenic following supplementation of oral creatine monohydrate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 1785-1792.

M. Doherty, J. Balmer, R. C. R. Davison, L. Robinson, and P.M. Smith. (2003). Reliability of a combined 3-min constant load and performance cycling test. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24, 366-371.

M. Doherty and P.M.Smith (2001). Letter to the Editor-in-Chief, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32: 1794-1795. 

M. Doherty, P.M. Smith and K. Schroder. (2001). Rating of Perceived Exertion During Constant-Load Short-Distance Running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33, 1953-58.

P.M. Smith, M.J. Price and M. Doherty. (2001). The Influence of Crank Rate on Peak Oxygen Uptake During Arm Crank Ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 955-60. 

P.M. Smith and M.J. Price. (2000). Comments: "Physiological Effects and Variations in Spontaneously Chosen Crank Rate During Submaximal and Supramaximal Upper Body Exercise". Inernational Juornal of Sports Medicine, 21, 540-541.

M. Doherty, P.M. Smith and K. Schroder. (2000). Reproducibility of the maximum accumulated oxygen deficit and time to exhaustion during short-distance running. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 331-338.

Invited Book Chapter
P.M. Smith and T. Abel. Handcycling: from racing, to recreation and clinical rehabilitation. (2011). In: Gilbert, K., Schantz, O.J. and Legg, D. (eds). Essays on the Paralympic Movement: Certainties and Doubts, International Council for Sport Science and Physical Education Bulletin #61. ISSN: 1728-5909

P.M. Smith and S. Fleming. Paralympic Legacy in Physical Activity and Health: A UK Perspective. (2011). In: Gilbert, K. & Legg, D. (eds), Paralympic Legacies, Commonground Publishing; Champaign, Il. ISBN 978-1-86335-896-5

P.M. Smith, and M.J. Price. (2007). Physiological Testing Guidelines for Arm Crank Ergometry. In: Sport and Exercise Physiology Testing Standards, London, Routledge.

Refereed Abstracts/Conference Presentations
P.M. Smith, L. Dixon, L. Jones, L. Knight and R. Nicholson. (2000). The Effect of CHO Ingestion on Aerobic and Anaerobic Cycling Performance Capacity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 41.

P.M. Smith and M.J. Price (2001). The Influence of Crank Rate on the Attainment of Peak Oxygen Consumption During arm Crank Ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences. 19, 61-62. 

P.M.Smith, M.J. Price and R. Davison. (2002). Blood lactate profile following two different arm crank ergometry tests. Journal of Sports Sciences., 20, 58-59.

P.M.Smith, M.J. Price and M. Doherty. (2002). The influence of protocol design on the attainment of VO2 peak using arm crank ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 27-28.

R.C.R Davison, A Lucia, J Balmer, M Pérez, A Santalla and P.M. Smith. (2005). Changes in net torque during incremental and constant-load cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 114-115.

R.C.R Davison, A Lucia, J Balmer, M Pérez, A Santalla, P.M. Smith. (2005). Validity, reliability and consistency of a Monark ergometer during incremental and constant-load testing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 115-116.

P.M. Smith, J. Adkins, J. Castillo and M. Doherty (in press). The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. Journal of Sports Sciences. 

Invited Conference Presentations
P.M. Smith and M.S. El-Sayed. (Sept 1993). The effect of the oral administration of a carbohydrate drink on metabolic substrate changes during prolonged exercise. BASS conference Manchester.

P.M. Smith and M.S. El-Sayed. (Sept 1994). The effect of glucose ingestion on metabolic substrate changes after prolonged exercise. BASES annual conference – University of Aberdeen.

J.Arden-Rose and P. M. Smith. (Sept 1998). The impact of a ten week walking programme on physical characteristics and physiological responses to sub-maximal exercise in an overweight group. BASES student conference University of Brighton.

P. M. Smith, L.Dixon, L. Jones, L. Knight and R. Nicholson. (Sept 1999). The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on aerobic and anaerobic cycling performance capacity. BASES annual conference, Leeds Metropolitan University.

P.M. Smith and M.J. Price. (Sept 2000). The influence of crank rate on the attainment of peak oxygen consumption using arm crank ergometry. BASES annual conference, Liverpool John Moores University.

M.J. Price and P.M. Smith. (Sept 2000). The effect of crank rate upon physiological responses to sub-maximal upper-body exercise. European College of Sport Science Congress, Jyväskylä, Finland.

P.M.Smith, M.J. Price and M. Hughes. (Sept 2001). Exercise efficiency during arm crank ergometry. European College of Sport Science Congress, Cologne, Germany.

P.M.Smith, M.J. Price and M. Doherty. (Sept 2001). The influence of protocol design on the attainment of VO2 peak using arm crank ergometry. BASES annual conference, Newport.

P.M.Smith, M.J. Price and R. Davison. (Sept 2001). Blood lactate profile following two different arm crank ergometry tests. BASES annual conference Newport.

P.M. Smith and M.J. Price. (Sept 2002). Wingate testing of the upper body: considerations of loading strategy and repeatability. 12th Commonwealth International Sport Conference, Manchester.

I.B.do Amaral and P.M.Smith. (April 2003). The influence of ramp rate on the attainment of peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. BASES student conference, Coventry.

D. Drake and P.M. Smith. (April 2003). Identification and reproducibility of lactate and ventilatory thresholds using arm crank ergometry. BASES student conference, Coventry.

R.C.R Davison, A Lucia, J Balmer, M Pérez, A Santalla and P.M. Smith. (Sept 2004). Changes in net torque during incremental and constant-load cycling. BASES annual conference, Liverpool John Moores University.

R.C.R Davison, A Lucia, J Balmer, M Pérez, A Santalla, P.M. Smith. (Sept 2004). Validity, reliability and consistency of a Monark ergometer during incremental and constant-load testing. BASES annual conference, Liverpool John Moores University.

P.M.Smith. (March 2005). Development of physiological tests for the upper body. British Paralympic Association Meeting, Loughborough University.

P.M. Smith, J. Adkins, J. Castillo and M. Doherty (Sept 2005). The effect of oral affeine ingestion on peak physiological responses during arm crank ergometry. BASES annual conference, Loughborough University.

P.M. Smith, M. Doherty, M.A. Goss-Sampson and M.J. Price. (March 2006). The Effect of Imposed or Spontaneously Chosen Crank Rates on Peak Physiological Responses during Arm Crank Ergometry. Accepted for presentation in 13th Commonwealth Sport Conference; 9-12th March Melbourne, Australia.

P.M. Smith, M. Doherty, D. Drake, M.A. Goss-Sampson and MJ. Price. (March 2006). Reproducibility of differentiated ratings of perceived exertion during incremental arm crank ergometry. Accepted for presentation in 13th Commonwealth Sport Conference; 9-12th March, Melbourne, Australia.

M. Doherty, R. James, C.J. Hulston, and P.M. Smith (Sept 2006). The effects of caffeine on exercise performance: The evidence from fundamental and applied research. Symposium at the BASES annual conference, University of Wolverhampton.

P.M. Smith, M.A. Goss-Sampson, M.L. Chapman. (March 2007). Development of a sport-specific ergometer for the purpose of assessing physiological responses and peak aerobic power of Handcyclists. Submitted to the British Paralympic Association, Sport Science and Medicine Conference. Loughborough University, March 2007.

P.M. Smith, J.L. Fern, M.L. Chapman and M.A. Goss-Sampson. (Sept 2007). Crank configuration, peak physiological responses and pattern of torque production during arm crank ergometry. BASES annual conference, Bath University

Personal Information
My interests and expertise are based in the application of exercise physiology in an attempt to optimise sporting performance. I have an interest in the design and development of methods used in the assessment of peak an-/aerobic power, exercise efficiency and oxygen uptake kinetics within laboratory and field-based settings. My current research focus predominantly revolves around the determination and understanding of physiology responses to upper-body exercise. In this context generic arm crank ergometry and the (recreational or competitive) sport of handcycling is employed. I was a co-author (with Dr. Michael J. Price) of a recent BASES book chapter that provides methodological recommendations associated with upper-body exercise testing and that has application in the respective fields of sports performance and clinical health.

Outside work I am a Trustee and Treasurer of the UK Handcycling Association (UKHCA), and I act as the UK's representative on the European Handcycling Federation committee. I have been involved in organising and running a number of high profile Para-cycling competitions, most notable of all being the UCI-sanctioned, Eurotunnel Kent International Para-cycling Championships that took place in September 2010 at the Fowlmead race circuit in Kent. This event was primarily organised in association with colleagues from the Disability Sports Development Unit, Kent County Council, and was the first UCI-sanctioned (P1) road Para-cycling event that has ever taken place in the UK.

I am also interested in barriers to participation in individuals who either have a congenital or acquired spinal injury, and I appreciate there is a need for a multidimensional, interdisciplinary approach to this area. In this regard I have become involved with a very ambitious project with the Battleback group based at DMRC Headley Court, where an 8-man relay team will undergo training and selection to compete in the Race Across America (the RAAM) in June 2012. This 3,051 mile race from the west-to-east coast of America will include a cumulative ascent of more than 100,000 feet, and will no doubt prove extremely challenging for the squad of riders that will be composed of a combination of upright cyclists and handcyclists.

Most recently of all I have been involved in discussions to develop a European Research Group in Disability Sport (ERGiDS) with other colleagues from the UK, Germany, the Netherland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy. We hope that these initial discussions will lead to the development of a very strong European platform upon which excellent research can be undertaken.​